Briefly discuss the main schools of Muslim law.
Muslim religion is one of the most ancient religion in the world and it is the second most populated religion after Christianity. According to Islam, Muslims believe in oneness of God and according to them, there is only one God that is Allah and Prophet Muhammad was the last messenger of Allah.
Moreover, they believe that Allah revealed the divine communication that is Quran to Prophet Muhammad through Angel Gabriel. During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad, Muslims were not divided into different sects and principles of Muslim law were uniform at that time.
But after the death of Prophet Muhammad, Muslims were divided into two sects:-
These sects were sub-divided into various schools.
The schools of sect Sunni are as follows:-
• Hanafi School
• Maliki School
• Shafei School
• Hanabali School
Hanafi School:- Earlier this school was known as Kufa school. But, later it was named after its founder Imam Abu Hanafi. This school is very important in a respect of matrimonial laws and basically relies on customs and precedents of Muslim community as the traditions of Prophet Muhammad.
This school is most followed School amongst all schools of Muslim law and whenever courts have to interpret Islamic law principles, they generally rely first on this school.
Maliki School:– This school is named after its founder Maliki- Ibn- Anas. This school has been originated from Sunnat and Ahadis but this school have hardly any adherents in India.
Shafi School:– This school was established by Mohammed Bin Irdis Shafi who was student of both Imam Malik and Imam
Hanafi. This school is basically combination of both Hanafi School and Maliki School. The Qiya source of law was originated from this school.
Hanabali School:– Ahmed Bin Hanabal who was disciple of Imam Shafi, was the founder of this school. This school rejected the Shafi school for relying upon Qiya and Ahmed Bin Hanabal insisted on going back to Ahadis and Sunnat to interpret Quran and other Muslim laws.
The schools of sect Shia are as follows:-
• Athna Asharias
- Ismailias:- According to Muslim religion, after the death of Imam Zafar, some of Shias started following his elder son Ismail and that was why, they became Ismailias. This school was originated in Egypt.
- Athna Asharias:- According to Muslim religion, after the death of Imam Zafar, majority of Shias started following Musa Kazim and that was why, they came to be known as followers of Athna Asharias School.
- Zaidyas:– According to Muslim religion, after the death of Imam Zaynul Abidin, one section of Shias declared his son Zayd as their Imam and that was why this school came into existence.