Define equality and state it’s importance and types.

Understanding Equality
The idea that human beings are equal is enigmatic A nation that seeks equality creates laws to bring change in its society. A law for equality is inadequate and opposed where pluralistic pattern of society has become the order of the day whether it’s a developed or under developed nation. Liberty and rights lead to a third principle in political theory, which is of equality, Equality determines how rights are to be distributed amongst the individuals as citizens and groups, both whether equally or unequally.
Meaning of Equality
Equality, which means state of being equal, is derived from acqus/acqualis, meaning fair. It signifies having the same rights, privileges, treatments, status and opportunities Equality is treated as something that relates to distributive principle because of which rights, treatments, and opportunities are distributed amongst the beneficiaries in a fair manner Fairness does not mean all to be treated equally in all circumstances. In fact it very well means unequal treatment for those who are unequal. Essentially it dates to the principle of justice because it requires fair distributive principle.
Importance of equality
The concept of equality as a political ideal invokes the idea that all human beings have an equal worth regardless of their color, gender, race, or nationality. It urges among human beings equal consideration and respect because of the common humanity. The belief in this notion of humanity led us to the declaration of universal human rights.
Equality became the slogan in the struggle against states and social institutions which uphold inequalities of rank, wealth, status or privilege, among people during the modern period. In the eighteenth century, the French revolutionaries used the slogan ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ to revolt against the landed feudal aristocracy and the monarchy. The demand for equality was also raised during anti-colonial struggle in Asia and Africa during the twentieth century. It continues to be raised by struggling group such as women or dalits who feel marginalized in our society.
Equality now has become a widely accepted ideal which is embodied in the constitutions and laws in the world. However the most visible and disturbing factor around us in the world and as well. in our society is inequality. We can see in country slums existing side by side with luxury housing, schools which may lack even drinking water facilities or toilets, waste of food as well as starvation. There are visible difference between what law promises and what we see around us.
India through its constitution attempts to fill the gap between equal and unequal with the principle of equality as enshrined in the constitution.

According to Laski equality means:
a) Absence of privileges. It means that will of one is equal to the will of any other. It means equality of rights
b) Adequate opportunities are laid open to all. Opportunities should be given to all to realize the implications of his personality.
c) All must have access to social benefits and no one should be restricted on any ground. The inequalities by birth or because of parentage and hereditary causes are unreasonable.
d) Absence of economic and social exploitation
According to Barker, the concept of equality means
a) Fundamental equalities of all
b) Equality of opportunity
c) Equality of conditions where there is an attempt to make the conditions of life equal
d) Equality of outcome of results
Equality of opportunities
The concept of equality implies that all people as human being are entitled to the same rights and opportunities to develop the skills and talents, to pursue their goals and ambitions

Types of Equality
(i) Social Equality:
Social equality means no one should be discriminated in the distribution of rights, privileges and opportunities based on birth, caste, religion, race, colour, gender or social status. Each one should be given equal opportunity to develop his personality. Social equality implies few important aspects. They are: removal of discrimination based on social status, absence of special privileges to few and finally ensuring equal opportunity in terms of acquiring education.
French declaration of Rights of Man and citizens declared that ‘men are born and always continue free and equal in their rights. The United Nations organization on 10th December, 1948, declared the charter of human rights which laid stress on social equality.
(ii) Civil Equality:
The word ‘civil’ is derived from the Latin word civilis or civis, which means citizen. Civil equality means equality in which each citizen is provided with equal civil rights and liberties. Civil equality consists of similar civil liberties and civil rights by all the citizens, Civil laws should treat all the individuals equally.
There should not be any discrimination of superior and inferior, the rich and the poor, caste and creed. colour and race, clans and tribes, groups and classes.

(iii) Political Equality:
Political Equality means equal right of all citizens, without any distinction. allowed to participate in the affairs of the state. Political right of all citizen is ensured through universal adult franchise.
The other factors that ensure the political rights of citizens are:
Right to vote
Right to contest in election
Right to hold public office
Right to petition the government and criticize public policy
Political equality is actually the test on the experiments of democracy. It is also believed that political equality in itself is not adequate to disperse political power, it also needs socio-economic equality to achieve political equality.
(iv) Economic Equality:
Economic equality is justifiable the ardent a only when all people have reasonable opportunities to develop themselves fully. Economic equality is meaningful only when there is an adequate scope for employment, reasonable wages, adequate leisure and equal share in the management Laissez fa of economic concern. Professor Laski explains economic equality, “Political equality is, therefore, never real unless it is accompanied with virtual economic liberty: political power otherwise is bound to be the hand-maid of economic power”.
Economic equality here means the provision of equal opportunities to all so that they may be able to make should be their economy progress. Ideologically this is possible in Socialism and not in Capitalism.
(v) Equality of opportunity and education:
Equality of opportunity and education means, all the citizens should be given equal and similar opportunities by the state. All the citizens should have similar chances to receive education and equal opportunities be given to develop their personality. Social inequalities such as race, caste, religion, language, rich, poor and gender based discrimination should be eradicated. In India, constitution provides provisions for equal opportunities and equal education.

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