Explain the meaning, characteristics and kinds of Rights.
Rights are so common in our world that we might suppose that they are woven into a fabric of human rights. The significance of rights in the modern era is not limited to their entrenchment in the constitution and their announcement in International declarations. If all human beings possess rights merely in virtue of being human, then all human possess rights merely in virtue of being human, then all humans possess a certain equality of moral standing which cuts across differences of class, caste or race or religion.
T.H. Green – Rights are powers necessary for the fulfillment of man’s vocation as a moral being.
Rights are the common claims of the people which every cultures society recognizes as essential claims for their development and which are therefore enforced by the state.
- Rights are very important for the societal development.
- They are available to all the people irrespective of caste, creed, race or gender bias.
- Rights and duties are interrelated to each other. “No duties, no rights.”
- Rights are justiciable
- It is the duty of the state to protect the rights of the people.
Different Types of Rights
- Natural Rights: These rights are parts of human nature and reason. Political theory explains that an individual has certain basic rights and the government cannot deny these rights.
- Moral Rights: Moral rights includes rules of good conduct, courtesy and moral behaviour. Moral Rights include rules of good conduct, courtesy and of moral behaviour and stand for moral perfection of the people.
- Legal Rights: Legal rights are equally available to all the citizens and they follow without any discrimination. Legal rights are those which are accepted and enforced by the state. Legal rights are of three types.
a) Civil Rights: These are the rights which provide opportunity to each person to lead a civilized social life and that which are protected by the state. Right to life, liberty and equality are civil rights.
b) Political Rights: These are the rights by virtue of which the people get a share in the political process. These rights include right to vote, right to get elected, right to hold public office etc.
c) Economic Rights: These are the rights which provide the economic security to the people.
Legal rights are what the law says there are, insofar as the law is enforced. They gain importance through legislation or decree by a legally authorized authority.
- Contractual Rights: These rights originate from the practice of promise – keeping. They apply to particular individuals to whom contractual promises have been made.
- Human Rights: Human rights are the rights of highest order. They are protected and supported by international and national laws and treaties.